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Multiplayer Threejs

Video Lecture

Multiplayer Threejs Multiplayer Threejs

Description

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Install Three.js and types.

npm install three --save-dev
npm install @types/three --save-dev

Install the Rapier Physics engine.

npm install @dimforge/rapier3d-compat --save-dev

Resources

There are also some images and 3d models to download as part of this lesson.

Download the zip file below, and extract the contents into your ./dist/client/ folder.

multiplayer-threejs.zip

After extracting, your ./dist/client/ folder structure should look like,

|-- dist
  |-- client
    |-- img
      |-- lensflare0.png
      |-- lensflare3.png
      |-- venice_sunset_1k.hdr
    |-- models
      |-- eve@idle.glb
      |-- eve@jump.glb
      |-- eve@pose.glb
      |-- eve$@walk_compressed.glb
    |-- index.html

./src/server/server.ts

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import { createServer } from 'http'
import { Server } from 'socket.io'
import * as express from 'express'
import * as path from 'path'

const clients: { [id: string]: any } = {}

const port = 3000

const app = express()
app.use(express.static(path.join(__dirname, '../client')))

const server = createServer(app)

const io = new Server(server)

io.on('connection', (socket) => {
  clients[socket.id] = {}
  socket.emit('id', socket.id)

  socket.on('disconnect', () => {
    if (clients && clients[socket.id]) {
      delete clients[socket.id]
      io.emit('removeClient', socket.id)
    }
  })

  socket.on('update', (message) => {
    if (clients[socket.id]) {
      clients[socket.id] = message // relaying the complete message
    }
  })
})

setInterval(() => {
  io.emit('clients', clients)
}, 100)

server.listen(port, () => {
  console.log('Server listening on port ' + port)
})

./src/client/client.ts

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import { Scene, PerspectiveCamera, WebGLRenderer, Clock } from 'three'
import Stats from 'three/examples/jsm/libs/stats.module.js'
import Game from './Game'

const scene = new Scene()

const camera = new PerspectiveCamera(
  75,
  window.innerWidth / window.innerHeight,
  0.1,
  1000
)
camera.position.set(0, 0, 2)

const renderer = new WebGLRenderer({ antialias: true })
renderer.setSize(window.innerWidth, window.innerHeight)
renderer.shadowMap.enabled = true
document.body.appendChild(renderer.domElement)

window.addEventListener('resize', () => {
  camera.aspect = window.innerWidth / window.innerHeight
  camera.updateProjectionMatrix()
  renderer.setSize(window.innerWidth, window.innerHeight)
})

const stats = new Stats()
document.body.appendChild(stats.dom)

const game = new Game(scene, camera, renderer)
await game.init()

const clock = new Clock()
let delta = 0

function animate() {
  requestAnimationFrame(animate)

  delta = clock.getDelta()

  game.update(delta)

  renderer.render(scene, camera)

  stats.update()
}

animate()

./src/client/Game.ts

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import {
  Scene,
  AnimationAction,
  AnimationMixer,
  AnimationUtils,
  DirectionalLight,
  Mesh,
  PerspectiveCamera,
  Object3D,
  WebGLRenderer,
  Group,
  Vector3,
  BoxGeometry,
  MeshStandardMaterial,
  Euler,
  Quaternion,
  Matrix4,
  GridHelper,
  TextureLoader,
  EquirectangularReflectionMapping,
  AnimationClip
} from 'three'
import { GLTFLoader } from 'three/examples/jsm/loaders/GLTFLoader.js'
import { DRACOLoader } from 'three/examples/jsm/loaders/DRACOLoader.js'
import { RGBELoader } from 'three/examples/jsm/loaders/RGBELoader.js'
import { Lensflare, LensflareElement } from 'three/examples/jsm/objects/Lensflare.js'
import * as SkeletonUtils from 'three/examples/jsm/utils/SkeletonUtils.js'
import RAPIER, {
  ActiveEvents,
  ColliderDesc,
  RigidBody,
  RigidBodyDesc,
  World,
  EventQueue
} from '@dimforge/rapier3d-compat'
import { io } from 'socket.io-client'

class Keyboard {
  keyMap: { [key: string]: boolean } = {}

  constructor(renderer: WebGLRenderer) {
    document.addEventListener('pointerlockchange', () => {
      if (document.pointerLockElement === renderer.domElement) {
        document.addEventListener('keydown', this.onDocumentKey)
        document.addEventListener('keyup', this.onDocumentKey)
      } else {
        document.removeEventListener('keydown', this.onDocumentKey)
        document.removeEventListener('keyup', this.onDocumentKey)
      }
    })
  }

  onDocumentKey = (e: KeyboardEvent) => {
    this.keyMap[e.code] = e.type === 'keydown'
  }
}

class Eve extends Group {
  mixer?: AnimationMixer
  glTFLoader: GLTFLoader

  animations: AnimationClip[] = []

  constructor() {
    super()

    const dracoLoader = new DRACOLoader()
    dracoLoader.setDecoderPath('https://www.gstatic.com/draco/v1/decoders/')

    this.glTFLoader = new GLTFLoader()
    this.glTFLoader.setDRACOLoader(dracoLoader)
  }

  async init(animationActions: { [key: string]: AnimationAction }) {
    const [eve, idle, jump, pose] = await Promise.all([
      this.glTFLoader.loadAsync('models/eve$@walk_compressed.glb'),
      this.glTFLoader.loadAsync('models/eve@idle.glb'),
      this.glTFLoader.loadAsync('models/eve@jump.glb'),
      this.glTFLoader.loadAsync('models/eve@pose.glb')
    ])
    this.animations.push(
      idle.animations[0],
      eve.animations[0],
      jump.animations[0],
      pose.animations[0]
    )

    eve.scene.traverse((m) => {
      if ((m as Mesh).isMesh) {
        m.castShadow = true
      }
    })

    this.mixer = new AnimationMixer(eve.scene)
    animationActions['idle'] = this.mixer.clipAction(idle.animations[0])
    animationActions['walk'] = this.mixer.clipAction(
      AnimationUtils.subclip(eve.animations[0], 'walk', 0, 42)
    )
    jump.animations[0].tracks = jump.animations[0].tracks.filter(function (e) {
      return !e.name.endsWith('.position')
    })
    animationActions['jump'] = this.mixer.clipAction(jump.animations[0])
    animationActions['pose'] = this.mixer.clipAction(pose.animations[0])

    animationActions['idle'].play()

    this.add(eve.scene)
  }

  update(delta: number) {
    this.mixer?.update(delta)
  }
}

class AnimationController {
  scene: Scene
  wait = false
  animationActions: { [key: string]: AnimationAction } = {}
  activeAction = 'idle'
  speed = 0
  keyboard
  model?: Eve

  constructor(scene: Scene, keyboard: Keyboard) {
    this.scene = scene
    this.keyboard = keyboard
  }

  async init() {
    this.model = new Eve()
    await this.model.init(this.animationActions)
    this.scene.add(this.model)
  }

  setAction(action: string) {
    if (this.activeAction != action) {
      this.animationActions[this.activeAction].fadeOut(0.1)
      this.animationActions[action].reset().fadeIn(0.1).play()
      this.activeAction = action
    }
  }

  update(delta: number) {
    if (!this.wait) {
      let actionAssigned = false

      if (this.keyboard.keyMap['Space']) {
        this.setAction('jump')
        actionAssigned = true
        this.wait = true
        setTimeout(() => (this.wait = false), 1200)
      }

      if (
        !actionAssigned &&
        (this.keyboard.keyMap['KeyW'] ||
          this.keyboard.keyMap['KeyA'] ||
          this.keyboard.keyMap['KeyS'] ||
          this.keyboard.keyMap['KeyD'])
      ) {
        this.setAction('walk')
        actionAssigned = true
      }

      if (!actionAssigned && this.keyboard.keyMap['KeyQ']) {
        this.setAction('pose')
        actionAssigned = true
      }

      !actionAssigned && this.setAction('idle')
    }

    if (this.activeAction === 'walk') {
      this.model?.update(delta * 2)
    } else {
      this.model?.update(delta)
    }
  }
}

class FollowCam {
  camera: PerspectiveCamera
  pivot = new Object3D()
  yaw = new Object3D()
  pitch = new Object3D()

  constructor(scene: Scene, camera: PerspectiveCamera, renderer: WebGLRenderer) {
    this.camera = camera

    this.yaw.position.y = 0.75

    document.addEventListener('pointerlockchange', () => {
      if (document.pointerLockElement === renderer.domElement) {
        renderer.domElement.addEventListener('mousemove', this.onDocumentMouseMove)
        renderer.domElement.addEventListener('wheel', this.onDocumentMouseWheel)
      } else {
        renderer.domElement.removeEventListener('mousemove', this.onDocumentMouseMove)
        renderer.domElement.removeEventListener('wheel', this.onDocumentMouseWheel)
      }
    })

    scene.add(this.pivot)
    this.pivot.add(this.yaw)
    this.yaw.add(this.pitch)
    this.pitch.add(camera)
  }

  onDocumentMouseMove = (e: MouseEvent) => {
    this.yaw.rotation.y -= e.movementX * 0.002
    const v = this.pitch.rotation.x - e.movementY * 0.002

    if (v > -1 && v < 1) {
      this.pitch.rotation.x = v
    }
  }

  onDocumentMouseWheel = (e: WheelEvent) => {
    e.preventDefault()
    const v = this.camera.position.z + e.deltaY * 0.005

    if (v >= 0.5 && v <= 10) {
      this.camera.position.z = v
    }
  }
}

class Player {
  scene: Scene
  world: World
  body: RigidBody
  animationController?: AnimationController
  position: Vector3
  inputVelocity = new Vector3()
  euler = new Euler()
  quaternion = new Quaternion()
  followTarget = new Object3D()
  grounded = true
  rotationMatrix = new Matrix4()
  targetQuaternion = new Quaternion()
  followCam: FollowCam
  keyboard: Keyboard
  wait = false
  handle = -1

  constructor(
    scene: Scene,
    camera: PerspectiveCamera,
    renderer: WebGLRenderer,
    world: World,
    position: [number, number, number] = [0, 0, 0]
  ) {
    this.scene = scene
    this.world = world
    this.keyboard = new Keyboard(renderer)
    this.followCam = new FollowCam(this.scene, camera, renderer)
    this.position = new Vector3(...position)

    scene.add(this.followTarget)

    this.body = world.createRigidBody(
      RigidBodyDesc.dynamic()
        .setTranslation(...position)
        .enabledRotations(false, false, false)
        .setLinearDamping(4)
        .setCanSleep(false)
    )
    this.handle = this.body.handle

    const shape = ColliderDesc.capsule(0.5, 0.15)
      .setTranslation(0, 0.645, 0)
      .setMass(1)
      .setFriction(0)
      .setActiveEvents(ActiveEvents.COLLISION_EVENTS)

    world.createCollider(shape, this.body)
  }

  async init() {
    this.animationController = new AnimationController(this.scene, this.keyboard)
    await this.animationController.init()
  }

  setGrounded(grounded: boolean) {
    if (grounded != this.grounded) {
      this.grounded = grounded
      if (grounded) {
        this.body.setLinearDamping(4)
        setTimeout(() => {
          this.wait = false
        }, 250)
      } else {
        this.body.setLinearDamping(0)
      }
    }
  }

  reset() {
    this.body.setLinvel(new Vector3(0, 0, 0), true)
    this.body.setTranslation(new Vector3(0, 1, 0), true)
  }

  update(delta: number) {
    this.inputVelocity.set(0, 0, 0)
    let limit = 1
    if (this.grounded) {
      if (this.keyboard.keyMap['KeyW']) {
        this.inputVelocity.z = -1
        limit = 9.5
      }
      if (this.keyboard.keyMap['KeyS']) {
        this.inputVelocity.z = 1
        limit = 9.5
      }
      if (this.keyboard.keyMap['KeyA']) {
        this.inputVelocity.x = -1
        limit = 9.5
      }
      if (this.keyboard.keyMap['KeyD']) {
        this.inputVelocity.x = 1
        limit = 9.5
      }

      this.inputVelocity.setLength(delta * limit)

      if (!this.wait && this.keyboard.keyMap['Space']) {
        this.wait = true
        this.inputVelocity.y = 5
      }
    }

    this.euler.y = this.followCam.yaw.rotation.y
    this.quaternion.setFromEuler(this.euler)
    this.inputVelocity.applyQuaternion(this.quaternion)

    this.body.applyImpulse(this.inputVelocity, true)

    if (this.body.translation().y < -10) {
      this.reset()
    }

    this.followTarget.position.copy(this.body.translation())
    this.followTarget.getWorldPosition(this.position)
    this.followCam.pivot.position.lerp(this.position, delta * 10)

    this.animationController?.model?.position.lerp(this.position, delta * 20)

    this.rotationMatrix.lookAt(
      this.followTarget.position,
      this.animationController?.model?.position as Vector3,
      this.animationController?.model?.up as Vector3
    )
    this.targetQuaternion.setFromRotationMatrix(this.rotationMatrix)

    const distance = this.animationController?.model?.position.distanceTo(
      this.followTarget.position
    )

    if (
      (distance as number) > 0.0001 &&
      !this.animationController?.model?.quaternion.equals(this.targetQuaternion)
    ) {
      this.targetQuaternion.z = 0
      this.targetQuaternion.x = 0
      this.targetQuaternion.normalize()
      this.animationController?.model?.quaternion.rotateTowards(
        this.targetQuaternion,
        delta * 20
      )
    }

    this.animationController?.update(delta)
  }
}

class OtherPlayer {
  id: string
  animationActions: { [key: string]: AnimationAction } = {}
  activeAction = 'idle'
  speed = 0
  model?: Object3D
  mixer?: AnimationMixer
  world: World
  body?: RigidBody
  handle = -1

  constructor(id: string, player: Player, world: World) {
    this.id = id
    this.world = world

    this.model = SkeletonUtils.clone(player.animationController?.model as Object3D)
    this.model.name = id
    this.mixer = new AnimationMixer(this.model)
    this.animationActions['idle'] = this.mixer.clipAction(
      player.animationController?.model?.animations[0] as AnimationClip
    )
    this.animationActions['walk'] = this.mixer.clipAction(
      player.animationController?.model?.animations[1] as AnimationClip
    )
    this.animationActions['jump'] = this.mixer.clipAction(
      player.animationController?.model?.animations[2] as AnimationClip
    )
    this.animationActions['pose'] = this.mixer.clipAction(
      player.animationController?.model?.animations[3] as AnimationClip
    )

    this.animationActions[this.activeAction].play()
  }

  init(position: [number, number, number] = [0, 0, 0]) {
    this.model?.position.set(...position)

    this.body = this.world.createRigidBody(
      RigidBodyDesc.dynamic()
        .setTranslation(...position)
        .enabledRotations(false, false, false)
        .setLinearDamping(4)
        .setCanSleep(false)
    )
    this.handle = this.body.handle

    const shape = ColliderDesc.capsule(0.5, 0.15)
      .setTranslation(0, 0.645, 0)
      .setMass(1)
      .setFriction(0)

    this.world.createCollider(shape, this.body)
  }

  setAction(action: string) {
    if (this.activeAction != action) {
      this.animationActions[this.activeAction].fadeOut(0.1)
      this.animationActions[action].reset().fadeIn(0.1).play()
      this.activeAction = action
    }
  }

  update(delta: number) {
    this.body?.setTranslation(this.model?.position as Vector3, true)
    if (this.activeAction === 'walk') {
      this.mixer?.update(delta * 2)
    } else {
      this.mixer?.update(delta)
    }
  }
}

class Environment {
  scene: Scene
  light: DirectionalLight

  constructor(scene: Scene) {
    this.scene = scene

    this.scene.add(new GridHelper(25, 25))

    this.light = new DirectionalLight(0xffffff, Math.PI)
    this.light.position.set(65.7, 19.2, 50.2)
    this.light.castShadow = true
    this.scene.add(this.light)

    const textureLoader = new TextureLoader()
    const textureFlare0 = textureLoader.load('img/lensflare0.png')
    const textureFlare3 = textureLoader.load('img/lensflare3.png')

    const lensflare = new Lensflare()
    lensflare.addElement(new LensflareElement(textureFlare0, 1000, 0))
    lensflare.addElement(new LensflareElement(textureFlare3, 500, 0.2))
    lensflare.addElement(new LensflareElement(textureFlare3, 250, 0.8))
    lensflare.addElement(new LensflareElement(textureFlare3, 125, 0.6))
    lensflare.addElement(new LensflareElement(textureFlare3, 62.5, 0.4))
    this.light.add(lensflare)
  }

  async init() {
    await new RGBELoader().loadAsync('img/venice_sunset_1k.hdr').then((texture) => {
      texture.mapping = EquirectangularReflectionMapping
      this.scene.environment = texture
      this.scene.background = texture
      this.scene.backgroundBlurriness = 0.4
    })
  }
}

class UI {
  renderer: WebGLRenderer
  instructions: HTMLDivElement

  constructor(renderer: WebGLRenderer) {
    this.renderer = renderer

    this.instructions = document.getElementById('instructions') as HTMLDivElement

    const startButton = document.getElementById('startButton') as HTMLButtonElement
    startButton.addEventListener(
      'click',
      () => {
        renderer.domElement.requestPointerLock()
      },
      false
    )

    document.addEventListener('pointerlockchange', () => {
      if (document.pointerLockElement === this.renderer.domElement) {
        this.instructions.style.display = 'none'
      } else {
        this.instructions.style.display = 'block'
      }
    })
  }

  show() {
    ;(document.getElementById('spinner') as HTMLDivElement).style.display = 'none'
    this.instructions.style.display = 'block'
  }
}

export default class Game {
  scene: Scene
  camera: PerspectiveCamera
  renderer: WebGLRenderer
  player?: Player
  world?: World
  eventQueue?: EventQueue
  socket: any
  myId = ''
  clients: { [id: string]: OtherPlayer } = {}
  positions: { [id: string]: Vector3 } = {}
  quaternions: { [id: string]: Quaternion } = {}

  constructor(scene: Scene, camera: PerspectiveCamera, renderer: WebGLRenderer) {
    this.scene = scene
    this.camera = camera
    this.renderer = renderer
  }

  async init() {
    await RAPIER.init()
    const gravity = new Vector3(0.0, -9.81, 0.0)

    this.world = new World(gravity)
    this.eventQueue = new EventQueue(true)

    const floorMesh = new Mesh(new BoxGeometry(25, 1, 25), new MeshStandardMaterial())
    floorMesh.receiveShadow = true
    floorMesh.position.y = -0.5
    this.scene.add(floorMesh)
    const floorBody = this.world.createRigidBody(
      RigidBodyDesc.fixed().setTranslation(0, -0.5, 0)
    )
    const floorShape = ColliderDesc.cuboid(12.5, 0.5, 12.5)
    this.world.createCollider(floorShape, floorBody)

    this.player = new Player(this.scene, this.camera, this.renderer, this.world, [
      Math.random() * 20 - 10,
      0.1,
      Math.random() * 20 - 10
    ])
    await this.player.init()

    this.socket = io()
    this.socket.on('id', (id: string) => {
      this.myId = id
      setInterval(() => {
        this.socket.emit('update', {
          p: this.player?.position,
          q: this.player?.animationController?.model?.quaternion,
          a: this.player?.animationController?.activeAction
        })
      }, 100)
    })
    this.socket.on('clients', (clients: any) => {
      Object.keys(clients).forEach((c) => {
        if (c != this.myId) {
          if (!this.clients[c] && clients[c].p) {
            this.clients[c] = new OtherPlayer(
              c,
              this.player as Player,
              this.world as RAPIER.World
            )
            this.clients[c].init([clients[c].p.x, clients[c].p.y, clients[c].p.z])
            this.scene.add(this.clients[c].model as Object3D)
          } else {
            clients[c].p && (this.positions[c] = clients[c].p)
            clients[c].q && (this.quaternions[c] = new Quaternion(...clients[c].q))
            clients[c].a && this.clients[c].setAction(clients[c].a)
          }
        }
      })
    })
    this.socket.on('removeClient', (id: string) => {
      console.log('removing ' + id)
      this.scene.remove(this.scene.getObjectByName(id) as Object3D)
      this.world?.removeRigidBody(this.clients[id].body as RAPIER.RigidBody)
      delete this.clients[id]
      delete this.positions[id]
      delete this.quaternions[id]
    })

    const environment = new Environment(this.scene)
    await environment.init()
    environment.light.target = this.player.followTarget

    const ui = new UI(this.renderer)
    ui.show()
  }

  update(delta: number) {
    ;(this.world as World).timestep = Math.min(delta, 0.1)
    this.world?.step(this.eventQueue)
    this.eventQueue?.drainCollisionEvents((handle1, handle2, started) => {
      let hitOtherPlayer = false
      Object.keys(this.clients).forEach((c) => {
        if ([handle1, handle2].includes(this.clients[c].handle)) {
          hitOtherPlayer = true
        }
      })

      if (!hitOtherPlayer) {
        this.player?.setGrounded(started)
      }
    })
    this.player?.update(delta)

    Object.keys(this.clients).forEach((c) => {
      this.positions[c] && this.clients[c].model?.position.lerp(this.positions[c], 0.1)
      this.quaternions[c] &&
        this.clients[c].model?.quaternion.slerp(this.quaternions[c], 0.1)
      this.clients[c].update(delta)
    })
  }
}

./dist/client/index.html

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" />
    <title>
      Multiplayer Threejs : Socket.IO TypeScript Tutorials by Sean Bradley :
      https://sbcode.net/tssock/
    </title>
    <style>
      body {
        overflow: hidden;
        margin: 0px;
        background-color: black;
      }

      #instructions {
        background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5);
        top: 50%;
        left: 50%;
        height: 500px;
        width: 600px;
        margin-top: -250px;
        margin-left: -300px;
        position: absolute;
        font-size: 24px;
        font-family: monospace;
        color: white;
        text-align: center;
        pointer-events: none;
        user-select: none;
      }

      #instructions a {
        color: white;
        pointer-events: auto;
      }

      #instructions button {
        font-size: 24px;
        pointer-events: auto;
      }

      kbd {
        padding: 0px 4px;
        border: 1px solid rgb(255, 255, 255);
        border-radius: 4px;
        background: grey;
        font-size: 19px;
        color: white;
        font-family: monospace;
        font-style: normal;
      }

      #spinner {
        left: 50%;
        margin-left: -4em;
        font-size: 10px;
        border: 0.8em solid rgba(0, 0, 0, 1);
        border-left: 0.8em solid rgba(58, 166, 165, 1);
        animation: spin 1.1s infinite linear;
      }
      #spinner,
      #spinner:after {
        border-radius: 50%;
        width: 8em;
        height: 8em;
        display: block;
        position: absolute;
        top: 50%;
        margin-top: -4.05em;
      }

      @keyframes spin {
        0% {
          transform: rotate(360deg);
        }
        100% {
          transform: rotate(0deg);
        }
      }
    </style>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div id="spinner"></div>
    <div id="instructions" style="display: none">
      <h1>Multiplayer Threejs</h1>
      <p>
        Socket.IO TypeScript Tutorials<br /><a href="https://sbcode.net/tssock/"
          >https://sbcode.net/tssock/</a
        >
      </p>
      <kbd>W</kbd>&nbsp;<kbd>A</kbd>&nbsp;<kbd>S</kbd>&nbsp;<kbd>D</kbd> to move
      <br />
      <kbd>SPACE</kbd> to jump.
      <br />
      <kbd>P</kbd> to pose.
      <br />
      <br />
      <button id="startButton">Click To Play</button>
      <p>
        'Eve' model and animations from
        <a href="https://www.mixamo.com" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noreferrer"
          >Mixamo</a
        >
      </p>
    </div>
    <script type="module" src="bundle.js"></script>
  </body>
</html>

./src/client/tsconfig.json

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{
  "compilerOptions": {
    "target": "ES2022",
    "module": "ES2022",
    "outDir": "../../dist/client/",
    "moduleResolution": "Node10",
    "strict": true
  },
  "include": ["**/*.ts"]
}