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DisplacementMap

Video Lecture

DisplacementMap DisplacementMap DisplacementMap

Description

A displacement map is an image that can be used to alter the geometry of a mesh. The value of each pixel is used to change the position of the vertices of the mesh.

When using a displacement map, ensure that the geometry of the mesh that you are using, e.g., a plane, has many vertices. The displacement map is modifying the vertices. The more vertices you have, then the more detailed the displacement gets.

In the above working example, the plane geometry is created with 180 width segments, and 90 height segments.

const planeGeometry = new THREE.PlaneGeometry(3.6, 1.8, 180, 90)

Resources

The image files used in this lesson can be downloaded from the file named material-textures-4.zip. Extract the material-textures-4.zip contents into the ./dist/client/img/ folder.

material-textures-4.zip

Start Script

./src/client/client.ts

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import * as THREE from 'three'
import { OrbitControls } from 'three/examples/jsm/controls/OrbitControls'
import Stats from 'three/examples/jsm/libs/stats.module'
import { GUI } from 'three/examples/jsm/libs/dat.gui.module'

const scene = new THREE.Scene()
scene.add(new THREE.AxesHelper(5))

const light = new THREE.PointLight(0xffffff, 2)
light.position.set(0, 5, 10)
scene.add(light)

const camera = new THREE.PerspectiveCamera(
    75,
    window.innerWidth / window.innerHeight,
    0.1,
    1000
)
camera.position.z = 3

const renderer = new THREE.WebGLRenderer()
renderer.setSize(window.innerWidth, window.innerHeight)
document.body.appendChild(renderer.domElement)

const controls = new OrbitControls(camera, renderer.domElement)
controls.screenSpacePanning = true //so that panning up and down doesn't zoom in/out
//controls.addEventListener('change', render)

const planeGeometry = new THREE.PlaneGeometry(3.6, 1.8) //, 360, 180)

const material = new THREE.MeshPhongMaterial()

//const texture = new THREE.TextureLoader().load("img/grid.png")
const texture = new THREE.TextureLoader().load('img/worldColour.5400x2700.jpg')
material.map = texture
// const envTexture = new THREE.CubeTextureLoader().load(["img/px_50.png", "img/nx_50.png", "img/py_50.png", "img/ny_50.png", "img/pz_50.png", "img/nz_50.png"])
// const envTexture = new THREE.CubeTextureLoader().load(["img/px_eso0932a.jpg", "img/nx_eso0932a.jpg", "img/py_eso0932a.jpg", "img/ny_eso0932a.jpg", "img/pz_eso0932a.jpg", "img/nz_eso0932a.jpg"])
// envTexture.mapping = THREE.CubeReflectionMapping
// material.envMap = envTexture

//const specularTexture = new THREE.TextureLoader().load("img/earthSpecular.jpg")
// material.specularMap = specularTexture

const displacementMap = new THREE.TextureLoader().load(
    'img/gebco_bathy.5400x2700_8bit.jpg'
)
material.displacementMap = displacementMap

const plane: THREE.Mesh = new THREE.Mesh(planeGeometry, material)
scene.add(plane)

window.addEventListener('resize', onWindowResize, false)
function onWindowResize() {
    camera.aspect = window.innerWidth / window.innerHeight
    camera.updateProjectionMatrix()
    renderer.setSize(window.innerWidth, window.innerHeight)
    render()
}

const stats = Stats()
document.body.appendChild(stats.dom)

const options = {
    side: {
        FrontSide: THREE.FrontSide,
        BackSide: THREE.BackSide,
        DoubleSide: THREE.DoubleSide,
    },
}
const gui = new GUI()

const materialFolder = gui.addFolder('THREE.Material')
materialFolder.add(material, 'transparent')
materialFolder.add(material, 'opacity', 0, 1, 0.01)
materialFolder.add(material, 'depthTest')
materialFolder.add(material, 'depthWrite')
materialFolder
    .add(material, 'alphaTest', 0, 1, 0.01)
    .onChange(() => updateMaterial())
materialFolder.add(material, 'visible')
materialFolder
    .add(material, 'side', options.side)
    .onChange(() => updateMaterial())
//materialFolder.open()

const data = {
    color: material.color.getHex(),
    emissive: material.emissive.getHex(),
    specular: material.specular.getHex(),
}

const meshPhongMaterialFolder = gui.addFolder('THREE.meshPhongMaterialFolder')

meshPhongMaterialFolder.addColor(data, 'color').onChange(() => {
    material.color.setHex(Number(data.color.toString().replace('#', '0x')))
})
meshPhongMaterialFolder.addColor(data, 'emissive').onChange(() => {
    material.emissive.setHex(
        Number(data.emissive.toString().replace('#', '0x'))
    )
})
meshPhongMaterialFolder.addColor(data, 'specular').onChange(() => {
    material.specular.setHex(
        Number(data.specular.toString().replace('#', '0x'))
    )
})
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'shininess', 0, 1024)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'wireframe')
meshPhongMaterialFolder
    .add(material, 'flatShading')
    .onChange(() => updateMaterial())
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'reflectivity', 0, 1)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'refractionRatio', 0, 1)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'displacementScale', 0, 1, 0.01)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'displacementBias', -1, 1, 0.01)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.open()

function updateMaterial() {
    material.side = Number(material.side)
    material.needsUpdate = true
}

// const planeData = {
//     width: 3.6,
//     height: 1.8,
//     widthSegments: 1,
//     heightSegments: 1
// };
// const planePropertiesFolder = gui.addFolder("PlaneGeometry")
// //planePropertiesFolder.add(planeData, 'width', 1, 30).onChange(regeneratePlaneGeometry)
// //planePropertiesFolder.add(planeData, 'height', 1, 30).onChange(regeneratePlaneGeometry)
// planePropertiesFolder.add(planeData, 'widthSegments', 1, 360).onChange(regeneratePlaneGeometry)
// planePropertiesFolder.add(planeData, 'heightSegments', 1, 180).onChange(regeneratePlaneGeometry)
// planePropertiesFolder.open()

// function regeneratePlaneGeometry() {
//     let newGeometry = new THREE.PlaneGeometry(
//         planeData.width, planeData.height, planeData.widthSegments, planeData.heightSegments
//     )
//     plane.geometry.dispose()
//     plane.geometry = newGeometry
// }

function animate() {
    requestAnimationFrame(animate)

    render()

    stats.update()
}

function render() {
    renderer.render(scene, camera)
}

animate()

Final Script

./src/client/client.ts

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import * as THREE from 'three'
import { OrbitControls } from 'three/examples/jsm/controls/OrbitControls'
import Stats from 'three/examples/jsm/libs/stats.module'
import { GUI } from 'three/examples/jsm/libs/dat.gui.module'

const scene = new THREE.Scene()
scene.add(new THREE.AxesHelper(5))

const light = new THREE.PointLight(0xffffff, 2)
light.position.set(0, 5, 10)
scene.add(light)

const camera = new THREE.PerspectiveCamera(
    75,
    window.innerWidth / window.innerHeight,
    0.1,
    1000
)
camera.position.z = 3

const renderer = new THREE.WebGLRenderer()
renderer.setSize(window.innerWidth, window.innerHeight)
document.body.appendChild(renderer.domElement)

const controls = new OrbitControls(camera, renderer.domElement)
controls.screenSpacePanning = true //so that panning up and down doesn't zoom in/out
//controls.addEventListener('change', render)

const planeGeometry = new THREE.PlaneGeometry(3.6, 1.8, 360, 180)

const material = new THREE.MeshPhongMaterial()

//const texture = new THREE.TextureLoader().load("img/grid.png")
const texture = new THREE.TextureLoader().load('img/worldColour.5400x2700.jpg')
material.map = texture
// const envTexture = new THREE.CubeTextureLoader().load(["img/px_50.png", "img/nx_50.png", "img/py_50.png", "img/ny_50.png", "img/pz_50.png", "img/nz_50.png"])
// const envTexture = new THREE.CubeTextureLoader().load(["img/px_eso0932a.jpg", "img/nx_eso0932a.jpg", "img/py_eso0932a.jpg", "img/ny_eso0932a.jpg", "img/pz_eso0932a.jpg", "img/nz_eso0932a.jpg"])
// envTexture.mapping = THREE.CubeReflectionMapping
// material.envMap = envTexture

//const specularTexture = new THREE.TextureLoader().load("img/earthSpecular.jpg")
// material.specularMap = specularTexture

const displacementMap = new THREE.TextureLoader().load(
    'img/gebco_bathy.5400x2700_8bit.jpg'
)
material.displacementMap = displacementMap

const plane: THREE.Mesh = new THREE.Mesh(planeGeometry, material)
scene.add(plane)

window.addEventListener('resize', onWindowResize, false)
function onWindowResize() {
    camera.aspect = window.innerWidth / window.innerHeight
    camera.updateProjectionMatrix()
    renderer.setSize(window.innerWidth, window.innerHeight)
    render()
}

const stats = Stats()
document.body.appendChild(stats.dom)

const options = {
    side: {
        FrontSide: THREE.FrontSide,
        BackSide: THREE.BackSide,
        DoubleSide: THREE.DoubleSide,
    },
}
const gui = new GUI()

const materialFolder = gui.addFolder('THREE.Material')
materialFolder.add(material, 'transparent')
materialFolder.add(material, 'opacity', 0, 1, 0.01)
materialFolder.add(material, 'depthTest')
materialFolder.add(material, 'depthWrite')
materialFolder
    .add(material, 'alphaTest', 0, 1, 0.01)
    .onChange(() => updateMaterial())
materialFolder.add(material, 'visible')
materialFolder
    .add(material, 'side', options.side)
    .onChange(() => updateMaterial())
//materialFolder.open()

const data = {
    color: material.color.getHex(),
    emissive: material.emissive.getHex(),
    specular: material.specular.getHex(),
}

const meshPhongMaterialFolder = gui.addFolder('THREE.meshPhongMaterialFolder')

meshPhongMaterialFolder.addColor(data, 'color').onChange(() => {
    material.color.setHex(Number(data.color.toString().replace('#', '0x')))
})
meshPhongMaterialFolder.addColor(data, 'emissive').onChange(() => {
    material.emissive.setHex(
        Number(data.emissive.toString().replace('#', '0x'))
    )
})
meshPhongMaterialFolder.addColor(data, 'specular').onChange(() => {
    material.specular.setHex(
        Number(data.specular.toString().replace('#', '0x'))
    )
})
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'shininess', 0, 1024)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'wireframe')
meshPhongMaterialFolder
    .add(material, 'flatShading')
    .onChange(() => updateMaterial())
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'reflectivity', 0, 1)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'refractionRatio', 0, 1)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'displacementScale', 0, 1, 0.01)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.add(material, 'displacementBias', -1, 1, 0.01)
meshPhongMaterialFolder.open()

function updateMaterial() {
    material.side = Number(material.side)
    material.needsUpdate = true
}

const planeData = {
    width: 3.6,
    height: 1.8,
    widthSegments: 360,
    heightSegments: 180,
}

const planePropertiesFolder = gui.addFolder('PlaneGeometry')
//planePropertiesFolder.add(planeData, 'width', 1, 30).onChange(regeneratePlaneGeometry)
//planePropertiesFolder.add(planeData, 'height', 1, 30).onChange(regeneratePlaneGeometry)
planePropertiesFolder
    .add(planeData, 'widthSegments', 1, 360)
    .onChange(regeneratePlaneGeometry)
planePropertiesFolder
    .add(planeData, 'heightSegments', 1, 180)
    .onChange(regeneratePlaneGeometry)
planePropertiesFolder.open()

function regeneratePlaneGeometry() {
    const newGeometry = new THREE.PlaneGeometry(
        planeData.width,
        planeData.height,
        planeData.widthSegments,
        planeData.heightSegments
    )
    plane.geometry.dispose()
    plane.geometry = newGeometry
}

function animate() {
    requestAnimationFrame(animate)

    render()

    stats.update()
}

function render() {
    renderer.render(scene, camera)
}

animate()